Schlagwort-Archive: Geburtshelfer

Aus den medizinhistorischen Beständen der Ub MedUni Wien [70]: Nihell, Elizabeth: La Cause De L’Humanité, Référée Au Tribunal du bon sens & de la raison: Ou Traité Sur Accouchemens Par Les Femmes. 1771.

Nihell, Elizabeth: La Cause De L’Humanité, Référée Au Tribunal du bon sens & de la raison: Ou Traité Sur Accouchemens Par Les Femmes. Ouvrage très-utile aux Sages-Femmes, & très-intéressant pour les Familles. Traduit de l’Anglois. London, Paris: Chez Antoine Boudet, Imprimeur du Roi 1771.

[Zweigbibliothek für Geschichte der Medizin/Josephinische Bibliothek, Sign.: JB3874]

https://ubsearch.meduniwien.ac.at/

Text: Harald Albrecht, BA

Abb. 1    Elizabeth Nihell (1723-1776)

Elizabeth Nihell (1723-1776) war eine der bekanntesten und streitbarsten englischen Hebammen ihrer Zeit. Sie wurde 1723 in England geboren und stammte aus einer französisch-katholischen Familie. 1740 zog sie nach Paris wo sie den Mediziner und Apotheker Edmund (oder Edward) Nihell heiratete. Dieser kam aus einer bekannten irischen Familie, die zahlreiche Kaufleute, Mediziner, Priester und Autoren hervorgebracht hatte. Das Paar hatte zumindest ein gemeinsames Kind. 1747 begann Elizabeth Nihell ihre Ausbildung im Pariser Hôtel-Dieu, das von Louis duc d’Orléans (1703-1752) gefördert wurde. Eine ihrer Ausbildnerinnen war die berühmte französische Hebamme Angélique Marguerite Le Boursier Du Coudray (1712-1794). Während ihrer zweijährigen Zeit im Hôtel-Dieu fanden dort etwa 2.000 Geburten statt. Nihell konnte, was für die damalige Zeit sehr ungewöhnlich war – die meisten Hebammen waren nur sehr rudimentär oder gar nicht ausgebildet – in dieser Institution einen reichen Schatz an Erfahrungen sammeln.

1754 übersiedelte Elizabeth Nihell mit ihrem Mann zurück nach London, wo sie mindestens bis 1772 als Hebamme praktizierte. Schon in Paris beobachtete sie das Aufkommen immer mehr chirurgisch ausgebildeter männlicher Geburtshelfer mit großer Skepsis und Argwohn. Die Situation in England stellte sich ähnlich dar. Während die männlichen Geburtshelfer stetig zunahmen und immer höhere Preise für ihre Dienste verlangen konnten, wurden die Hebammen immer mehr zurückgedrängt und mussten sich mit immer geringeren Honoraren zufriedengeben. Nihell versuchte sich gegen diese Marginalisierung ihrer Berufsgruppe zu wehren und attackierte ihre männliche Kollegenschaft öffentlich. Nihell throws herself with great gusto into the very frontline of the battle between the two sexes over who should provide antenatal care and attend women in labour: female midwives with their inborn aptitude, empathetic approach and nature-friendly practice, or male practicioners keen to intervene to show their ‘superiority’ over women through crude attempts at early intervention and the use of forceps.“[1] Besonders die Geburtszangen, die ihre männlichen Kollegen verwendeten waren ihr ein Dorn im Auge, da sie ihrer Ansicht nach wesentlich mehr Schaden als Nutzen bringen würden. Eines ihrer Lieblingsziele ihrer öffentlichen Angriffe war William Smellie (1697-1793), einer der ersten und bekanntesten männlichen Geburtshelfer Englands. Many of her strongest attacks were dedicated at William Smellie who, through his classes for both male and female midwives, had increasing influence. She belittled his physique, alluding to his large hands, ‘the delicate fist of a great-horse-godmother of a he-midwife’.“[2]

1760 publizierte Elizabeth Nihell ihr Hauptwerk unter dem Titel: Nihell, Elizabeth: A Treatise On The Art Of Midwifery. Setting Forth Various Abuses therein, Especially as so the Practice with Instruments: The Whole Serving to put all Rational Inquirers in a fair Way of very safely forming their own Judgment upon the Question; Which it is best to employ, In Cases of Pregnancy an Lying-In, A Man-Midwife; Or A Midwife. London: Printed for A. Morley, at Gay’s-Head, near Beaufort Buildings, in the Strand 1760.

Die Zweigbibliothek für Geschichte der Medizin besitzt eine französische Übersetzung dieses Buches aus dem Jahr 1771: Nihell: La Cause De L’Humanité […]. London, Paris: 1771. Nihells Werk versteht sich nicht nur als Lehrbuch für Hebammen sondern auch als Streitschrift für ihre Sache, in der sie auch für ihre Positionen eintrat.

Abb. 2    Titelblatt: Nihell: La Cause De L’Humanité […]. London, Paris: 1771.

Elizabeth Nihell konnte jedoch die Entwicklungen ihrer Zeit nicht aufhalten. Es kann angenommen werden, dass sie ca. 1771 von ihrem Mann verlassen worden war. Unter den fortschreitend erschwerten Bedingungen für Hebammen musste sie nun ohne jede finanzielle Unterstützung für sich selbst aufkommen. Ab 1775 blieb ihr nichts anderes übrig als in ein Armen-Arbeitshaus zu ziehen wo sie ein Jahr später, 1776, starb.

Quellen:

Beal, Jane: Elizabeth Nihell. A feisty English midwife (1723-1776). In: Midwifery today. (114) 2015. S. 56-57.

Bosanquet, Anna: Inspiration from the past (3). Elizabeth Nihell, the ‘anti-obstetric’ midwife. In: The practising midwife. (12/10) 2009. S. 46-48.

Nihell, Elizabeth (b. 1723). In: On the shoulders of giants: eponyms and names in obstetrics and gynaecology. Von Thomas F. Basket. London: RCOG Press 1996. S. 160-161.

Nihell, Elizabeth (1723-?). In: The history of obstetrics and gynaecology. Von Michael J. O’Dowd und Elliot E. Philipp. Carnforth/Lancashire: Parthenon Publishing Group 1994. S. 638-639.

[1] Bosanquet, Anna: Inspiration from the past (3). Elizabeth Nihell, the ‘anti-obstetric’ midwife. In: The practising midwife. (12/10) 2009. S. 46.

[2] Nihell, Elizabeth (b. 1723). In: On the shoulders of giants: eponyms and names in obstetrics and gynaecology. Von Thomas F. Basket. London: RCOG Press 1996. S. 161.

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200 Jahre Ignaz Semmelweis: Präsentation von Büchern aus der „Neuburger Lesky Bibliothek“ beim Semmelweis-Symposium an der MedUni Wien

The following books were presented at the
Semmelweis-Symposium at the Medical University of Vienna, June 21st 2018

Semmelweis, Ignaz: The etiology, concept and prohylaxis of childbed fever. Budapest, Vienna and Leipzig: by Hartleben’s publishing company 1861.

[Branch-Library for Medical History/Neuburger-Lesky-Library, call-number: 1185]

https://ubsearch.meduniwien.ac.at/primo-explore/fulldisplay?docid=UMW_alma2113193900003344&context=L&vid=UMW&lang=de_DE&search_scope=UMW_all&adaptor=Local%20Search%20Engine&isFrbr=true&tab=default_tab&query=any,contains,Die%20Aetiologie%20%20der%20Begriff%20und%20die%20Prophylaxe%20des%20Kindbettfiebers&sortby=rank&mode=Basic

The book is a first edition of Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis’ (1818-1865) main work. It was collected in the Josephinum by the Austrian Military Medical Academy which was founded by Emperor Joseph II (1741-1790) in 1785. The Academy existed until 1918.

After a number of unfavourable foreign reviews of his 1861 book, Semmelweis lashed out against his critics in a series of Open Letters. They were addressed to various prominent European obstetricians, including Späth, Scanzoni, Siebold, and to „all obstetricians“. They were full of bitterness, desperation, and fury and were „highly polemical and superlatively offensive“, at times denouncing his critics as irresponsible murderers or ignoramuses.

Semmelweis, Ignaz: Two open letters to Dr. J. Spaeth and court counsellor Dr. F. W. Scanzoni. Budapest: 1861.

[Branch-Library for Medical History/Neuburger-Lesky-Library, call-number: 6221]

https://ubsearch.meduniwien.ac.at/primo-explore/fulldisplay?docid=UMW_alma2122037260003344&context=L&vid=UMW&lang=de_DE&search_scope=UMW_all&adaptor=Local%20Search%20Engine&isFrbr=true&tab=default_tab&query=any,contains,semmelweis%20spaeth&sortby=rank&mode=Basic

Prof. Joseph Spaeth was born in Bolzano/South Tyrol in 1823 and died in Vienna in 1896. He studied medicine at Vienna University and became a professor for obstetrics at the Military Medical Academy at the Josephinum in 1855. Later on in 1861 he became Professor for obstetrics at the second obstetrical-gynecological clinic of Vienna University at Vienna General Hospital. Semmelweis regarded him as a principal opponent.

Friedrich Wilhelm Scanzoni was born in Prague in 1821 and died in Bavaria in 1891. He studied medicine in Prague. He was a professor of obstetrics at Würzburg University and was an ardent critic of Semmelweis.

The book was collected by the “Wiener Medicinische Doctoren Collegium” which was also located at the Josephinum. It was a forerunner of today’s Medical Association.

Semmelweis, Iganz: two open letters to court counsellor Dr. Eduard Casper Jacob von Siebold and court counsellor Dr. F. W. Scanzoni. Budapest: 1861.

[Branch-Library for Medical History/Neuburger-Lesky-Library, call-number: 6222]

https://ubsearch.meduniwien.ac.at/primo-explore/fulldisplay?docid=UMW_alma2122037220003344&context=L&vid=UMW&lang=de_DE&search_scope=UMW_all&adaptor=Local%20Search%20Engine&tab=default_tab&query=any,contains,semmelweis%20siebold&sortby=rank&offset=0

Eduard Casper Jacob von Siebold was born in Würzburg in 1801 and died in Göttingen in 1861. He was a professor for gynecology worked for Humboldt University in Berlin, Marburg and Göttingen University. He had met Semmelweis in Vienna, who’s theories he could not accept at all.

The book was collected by Max Neuburger (1868-1955). Neuburger founded the Institute for History of Medicine in Vienna before World War One which moved in the Josephinum in 1920 after the Military Medical Academy was closed down. Because of his Jewish origin he had to flee Austria in 1938. He lived in his English exile until the early 1950ies before he returned to Vienna.

Semmelweis, Ignaz: Open letter to all professors of obstetrics. Budapest: 1862.

[Branch-Library for Medical History/Neuburger-Lesky-Library, call-number: 40590]

https://ubsearch.meduniwien.ac.at/primo-explore/fulldisplay?docid=UMW_alma2122037190003344&context=L&vid=UMW&lang=de_DE&search_scope=UMW_all&adaptor=Local%20Search%20Engine&isFrbr=true&tab=default_tab&query=any,contains,semmelweis%20offener%20brief&sortby=rank&offset=0

This book was also collected by the “Wiener Medicinische Doctoren Collegium” which was located at the Josephinum as a forerunner of today’s Medical Association.


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200 Jahre Ignaz Semmelweis: Präsentation von Büchern aus der „Neuburger Lesky Bibliothek“ beim Semmelweis-Symposium an der MedUni Wien

The following books will be presented at the
Semmelweis-Symposium at the Medical University of Vienna, June 21st 2018

Semmelweis, Ignaz: The etiology, concept and prohylaxis of childbed fever. Budapest, Vienna and Leipzig: by Hartleben’s publishing company 1861.

[Branch-Library for Medical History/Neuburger-Lesky-Library, call-number: 1185]

https://ubsearch.meduniwien.ac.at/primo-explore/fulldisplay?docid=UMW_alma2113193900003344&context=L&vid=UMW&lang=de_DE&search_scope=UMW_all&adaptor=Local%20Search%20Engine&isFrbr=true&tab=default_tab&query=any,contains,Die%20Aetiologie%20%20der%20Begriff%20und%20die%20Prophylaxe%20des%20Kindbettfiebers&sortby=rank&mode=Basic

The book is a first edition of Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis’ (1818-1865) main work. It was collected in the Josephinum by the Austrian Military Medical Academy which was founded by Emperor Joseph II (1741-1790) in 1785. The Academy existed until 1918.

After a number of unfavourable foreign reviews of his 1861 book, Semmelweis lashed out against his critics in a series of Open Letters. They were addressed to various prominent European obstetricians, including Späth, Scanzoni, Siebold, and to „all obstetricians“. They were full of bitterness, desperation, and fury and were „highly polemical and superlatively offensive“, at times denouncing his critics as irresponsible murderers or ignoramuses.

Semmelweis, Ignaz: Two open letters to Dr. J. Spaeth and court counsellor Dr. F. W. Scanzoni. Budapest: 1861.

[Branch-Library for Medical History/Neuburger-Lesky-Library, call-number: 6221]

https://ubsearch.meduniwien.ac.at/primo-explore/fulldisplay?docid=UMW_alma2122037260003344&context=L&vid=UMW&lang=de_DE&search_scope=UMW_all&adaptor=Local%20Search%20Engine&isFrbr=true&tab=default_tab&query=any,contains,semmelweis%20spaeth&sortby=rank&mode=Basic

Prof. Joseph Spaeth was born in Bolzano/South Tyrol in 1823 and died in Vienna in 1896. He studied medicine at Vienna University and became a professor for obstetrics at the Military Medical Academy at the Josephinum in 1855. Later on in 1861 he became Professor for obstetrics at the second obstetrical-gynecological clinic of Vienna University at Vienna General Hospital. Semmelweis regarded him as a principal opponent.

Friedrich Wilhelm Scanzoni was born in Prague in 1821 and died in Bavaria in 1891. He studied medicine in Prague. He was a professor of obstetrics at Würzburg University and was an ardent critic of Semmelweis.

The book was collected by the “Wiener Medicinische Doctoren Collegium” which was also located at the Josephinum. It was a forerunner of today’s Medical Association.

Semmelweis, Iganz: two open letters to court counsellor Dr. Eduard Casper Jacob von Siebold and court counsellor Dr. F. W. Scanzoni. Budapest: 1861.

[Branch-Library for Medical History/Neuburger-Lesky-Library, call-number: 6222]

https://ubsearch.meduniwien.ac.at/primo-explore/fulldisplay?docid=UMW_alma2122037220003344&context=L&vid=UMW&lang=de_DE&search_scope=UMW_all&adaptor=Local%20Search%20Engine&tab=default_tab&query=any,contains,semmelweis%20siebold&sortby=rank&offset=0

Eduard Casper Jacob von Siebold was born in Würzburg in 1801 and died in Göttingen in 1861. He was a professor for gynecology worked for Humboldt University in Berlin, Marburg and Göttingen University. He had met Semmelweis in Vienna, who’s theories he could not accept at all.

The book was collected by Max Neuburger (1868-1955). Neuburger founded the Institute for History of Medicine in Vienna before World War One which moved in the Josephinum in 1920 after the Military Medical Academy was closed down. Because of his Jewish origin he had to flee Austria in 1938. He lived in his English exile until the early 1950ies before he returned to Vienna.

Semmelweis, Ignaz: Open letter to all professors of obstetrics. Budapest: 1862.

[Branch-Library for Medical History/Neuburger-Lesky-Library, call-number: 40590]

https://ubsearch.meduniwien.ac.at/primo-explore/fulldisplay?docid=UMW_alma2122037190003344&context=L&vid=UMW&lang=de_DE&search_scope=UMW_all&adaptor=Local%20Search%20Engine&isFrbr=true&tab=default_tab&query=any,contains,semmelweis%20offener%20brief&sortby=rank&offset=0

This book was also collected by the “Wiener Medicinische Doctoren Collegium” which was located at the Josephinum as a forerunner of today’s Medical Association.


[Scroll down]